The almost complete 78 rpm record dating guide

The next pages comprise the heart of the book, containing dating charts and explanatory text for hundreds of labels issued in these three countries between and As it is, he at least gives us a prominent, detailed index which indicates where to look for all the pieces. The reader will use it constantly. It includes all principal catalog series with release dates and matrix series with recording dates for hundreds of labels issued in the three countries mentioned.

In the case of Victor, for example, the Guide contains charts for approximately 19 popular and 17 Red Seal catalog series. Additionally, the Guide follows major numerical series of its listed labels beyond Of course most labels did not issue or record in strict numerical sequence, as the author explains, so the dates are only approximate. However you should rarely be off by more than a few months. Or is it January 1st and June 30th? For labels with heavy release schedules, this can make a considerable numerical difference. The difference is not always minor, as labels sometimes gathered together past releases into supplements which were then dated with deceptive precision.

About Z this problem was cor- rected by relocating the take to the run-out also, exactly opposite the matrix number. On records pressed from matrices originally cut for Okeh or a related labeL the take is a letter following the matrix and the other numbers in the take position are stamper numbers. This system was used until , when the take was moved to the end of the matrix number, as it appears on most other labels.

Product details

The follow ing matrices were used on Colum- bia amd all subsidiary and client labels pressed by Col umbia see comments re ARC. Only the popular series and such others for which data is read- ily available are shown following. Often, a side originally recorded for special issue would ap- pear on the popular series of records - if you are unable to locate a matrix num- ber in the list below, either this is the case or it was recorded in Britain see that data.

This sequence was continued by CBS af- ter their acquisition of ARC, and the post- portion of this sequence will be listed later in the Columbia matrix section. These may appear on other Columbia labels. There may be others as weU. Little Wonder records used the same n umb er for matrix and catalog number, so this listing can be used for both by adding about one month to obtain the issue date.

A handful of French- Canadian. All other Cblumliia records issued only in Canada appear to have been recorded either in Britain or the U. If a matrix number on a Columbia record is not listed, check UJL listings in- cluding related labels. There are also numer- ous series u. In most if not all cases recording in these locations was ac- complished with port- able equipment on spo- radic visits, so that n umb ers were assigned in groups, often months or even years apart, making it impractical to estimate dates by number.

The two following ser- ies were originally in- tended for higher- priced issues. As the price of popular rec- ords increased, Decca transferred the popu- lar issues to each ser- ies in turn. The primary ex- ception is the series below. It primarily drew on the American series some of which appeared in Canada under their own num- bers and were priced higher but a few of these drew from other series not issued in Canada, such as Decca matrix numbers are virtually always in the run-out area, with the matrix number fol- owed by a take letter.

A few of the earliest issues show the matrix only on the label or not at alL A double letter as a take indi- cates the use of an alternate turntable on the same take. Canad- ian pressings show the number and take in the same location but in faint handwriting; they do not show the matrix on the label in most cases. Decca matrices were also used on Decca pressings on the Cham , pion label 40, 45 and catalog series and Canadian Melotone 40 and series , as well as the Decca- pressed Brunswick ser- ies and the Coral label from the penod- It must be noted that the U. There are a few series not listed here; these are either from out-of- town sessions or other sources, such as World Transcriptions.

Matrix numbers which begin with letters are U. Copies of the Decca files and ledgers are known to be accessible at the library of the Country Music Hall Of Fame in Nashville, should the user wish more accurate data on a Decca record or mat- rix. F 4 issued Victor used a aumber of series not documen- ted in this Guide for various special issues, Le.

Should you be unable to locate a Victor or RCA-Victor record in this guide, the chances are that it is in one of the above- noted series, particula- larly if the material is not standard popular or classical fare. Most of the series not listed here had but a handful of issues, and a short life span. For this reason, there is not sufficient data for them to be listed. Some are higher priced records, or issues using imported sides, which were issued on special series.

Series for which data is available are listed below. Most initial issues in all the series were pairings of single-faced issues. Bluebird numbers no listed here are either Canadian q. S, ethnic issuer so the user siiould insure the records are Canadian. Further series sec next page. B to B B Victor rec- ords usually did not show matrices. When they did , , on, and some Red Seal issues they appeared in the run-out and, except for the early dates. See single-faced issues for pre numbers.

The P- series was used in west coast studios S The other let- ters and numbers indi- cats record size, speed and other internal data. These appear on many small indepen- dent labels after , if REA did their mastering. NOTK- Early double-faced iss- ues may show the single-faced issue num- ber of a side in the runout This is not a matrix number. The Zon-D-Phone label is listed in section 3, as it started, and was run by Victor, as a separate independent company.

These labels will cover the majority of pre records not included in the preceding section. Grant chain of stores, as the latter are fairly common.

Flattening A Warped 78 rpm Record

When the record business dropped off tuid more labels appeared in , their fiHtunes diminished as well, and the company was bankrupt by early Interestingly enough, the company seems to have used different recording facilities, as some of their products display an exceptional fidelity for acoustic recording, while others are routine in quality! Grant stores from until , and pressed by Arto during the life of the latter company. The very first issues bore Arto numbers, but a prefix was quickly used. Bell continued to be pressed by Arto after the end of the parent label the Arto firm may have been in receivership but after number P, a new label and different jdiysical appearance suggest a new source for the label, though some time may have intervened.

Bell records bmre no visiUe markings, excep for a very few that showed matrix numbers as pmrtions thereof. The last EmersoU'aourced Bell records show at least the final digits oi the matrix number, and some carry mysterious numbers that suggest a simultaneous issue on an unknown labeL The last issues on the label were pressed by Gennett; these are quite scarce.

Bell sleeves have been seen with the Grant name oUiterated, suggesting either that remaining stock was sold off or that there was an attemp to continue the name. This label was pressed by Arto but much of the material was not recorded by Arto. It was based in Los Angeles but some of its issues were pessed by Arto and may have used Arto sides.

It appeared in and ended in after being involved with the bankruptcy of the Arto firm. In that year Kmile Berliner sold his U. As time went on, the elder Berliner, although maintaining the position of cheif officer, leaving the actual operations to his scms. Herbert Berliner was less interested in the Victor connection, particularly in the light of the royalties paid to the U5. By this time many firms were imputing records into Canada, and with the expiration of various patents this promised to be a more profitable enterprise. Realizing it would only be a matter of time until companies entered the record pressing business, Herbert Berliner established the Compo Cmnpany immediately after the end of the war; this was apparently done to prevent any complications with Victor should the original Berliner firm press records for other labels.


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Victor took over the Berliner Company three years later, operating it as a subsidiary thereafter. Herbert Berliner wasted no time in expanding his Compo operations. He laimched his own Sun label in May, and Apex a few months later, 2 Uid set up his own recording studio in July of that year he had apparently been using the Berliner studios previously. S issues, w hile the latter used existing lower-priced series Compo issues. In , Compo made arrangements to fness Decca records and dropped their connection with ARC and their subsidiary Labels, excepting Melotone.

The Apex label was revived for Canadian material in Herbert Berliner continued to head the Compo company until In that year, fearing a decline in his health, he sold the operatic to the U.

The almost complete 78 rpm record dating guide | Open Library

Decca continued to operate the firm as an independent company, and in a line of records was introduced on the Apex label which drew from various mdependent U. This proved fortuitous when the rock and roll boom hit and most hit records appeared on small labels in the U. Pressed by Compo and in its Decca version with the same LabeF.

Pressed, as noted above, by Compo from onward- Most duplicated U. Early issues with New York credits indicate this may have started as a store laliel for the Metropolitan chain, but it is known to have been sold elsewhere. It runs from until c. A few records were pressed under this name c. A label pressed by Gunpo for music publishers Gordon V. Most drew from U. A lower-priced label jnessed by Compo Pressed by Compo Unlike Brunswick, Compo Melotones did not duplicate U. After ARC was dropped, the label drew from Decca in a short-lived popular and a longer-lived 45 X 0 country series.

As Lucky Strike above. It is not known if these were store labels. One of the line of lower-jniced labels along with Crown and, later, Melotone. In , as CcHnpo took over the label The Starr name was added see Gennett above , gradually becoming more jn'orninent Compo dropped the G enn ett connection in , but continued the label drawing from Plaza and other sources.

Even the dLv records manufactured by Edison are so substantially different from the usual 78 rpm records as to barely merit discussion and coverage herein. Toward the end of the first decade of the twentieth century, it became obvious that the cylinder record cedud not hold its own against the popular disc record. Many firms were phasing out cylinder records, or about to. However, it appeared that some type of dLx record would be necessary to compete in the industry, and the firm was experimenting Mdth one.

Many popular entertainers, as well, had signed exclusive contracts with other record firms. Finally, the Ediwn name no Itmger carried the clout it once did as the market for popular records was composed primarily of the younger gcncratioD. The sales of Diamond discs dropped off each year from the be ginning of the decade. Edison tried experimenting with electrical recmding, which was not used by the firm until , long after the competition, but nothing was of any avaiL The heavy, awkward Edison record were loooked upon as old-fashicmed in a decade in which eve r y thing had to be brand new, and they simply did not selL Edison gamely hung on to the Diamond Disc and the Blue Amberol cylinder, continuing both for the life of the company, but the firm finally realized that they had to have a line of ordinary records, and the "Needle Cut" Edisons were announced to the trade in the fall of Unfortunately, this was not a good time for the record busLuess, and after an initial flurry of interest the new records failed to sell also.

This tried to avoid patent infringement by using an angled cut which supposedly allowed it to play equally well ot poorly on both lateral and vertical machines. They also produced a line of 7-inch records containing longer versions of the same material These sold reasonably well considering their unusual size, judging from their availability today. By they had started pressing 9-inch, almost full length recordings; by the next year these had been supplanted by regular Idinch discs. The 7-inch records lost the Emerson name at the end of , but were pressed through under the Melodise name.

Throughout and the firm proved successful with a tendency to be more adventurous in hiring talent, so that a number of. While these sold well competition from other companies entering the low-price field limited sales, and, as weU, customers stopped buying the more expensive records, discovering the same material to be available for less money. As a rrault, Emerson went into receivership and was reorganized in mid Crey CuU 2 Uid numerous smalle r labels depended on the supply of material from Emerson, including Brides written by staff composers to avrid royalty payments.

When appearing on other labels, these bore control numbers in a , later 31 X 0 series. In , the firm entered the radio industry, and became the Emerson Radio Corporation. This proved to be so sucessful and, in fact, is still in operation today, using the same trade mark! They were late in starting to record electrically, however, and their main customer for matrices. Grey Gull, started their own recording operatiem. They began recording electrically in late , having already! The first Emerson firm pressed the labels detailed on the frilowing page; there may have been others.

The Emsrson firm advertised the capability of making personal records, and although no records have been seen by the author that can be specifically identified as such, they may exist. The second, incarnation of Emerson seems to have had no subsidiary labels, although they leased matrices extensively. The later firm, particularly after its acquisition by the Scranton Button Company, supplied matrices to so many independent labels that it is impossible to determine which might actually be subsidiary labels.

Most are listed below, each under its own name. This label appears to have been pressed by Emerson for the Baldwin f'ianu Company, who applied for the name as a trade mark. There were both 9 and lO-inch L'wues, with the former starting in late , being supplanted by the latter the next year. As noted above, this was an extension of the 7-inch Emerson se.

This label was pressed by Emerson for the Larkin Company, a merchandising firm in Buffalo, New York, Both 9 and inch pressings were issued, although there does not apf ear to have be. It was pressed from early until early No other labek have been identified as Emerson subsidiary or client labek at thk time, although they may quite possibly exist see the comments above. Nutmeg sold between the two labek. Dandy, issued , bore no credits. Electric Recording Studios which weren't electrii! The records were issued under the Starr name for the first year, imt the name was changed to Cennett, after the family who ojierated the piano firm.

Cennett also pressed the rare. The flagship Cennett label wa. This was the lower-pricexl Une of records pressed by Cennett, as noted. The nanic aetptired by Dsexa. VII Cennett issue- used the 1. AU ased sides which appeared on Cennett in the r;u-lier fieri-vd or Chanipi.

The Labels listed below are some of the many client labels pressed by the Cennett firm: This label was pressed for a client during , with less than a hundred ever appearing. The credits include six companies, none of whose names indicate any connection with the record indastry. Some issues on this label were pressed by Cennett, others by Paramount q. All material also appeared on Cennett Q R S: Cennett pressed records fm: A label not related to Cennett also bears the name q.

Cennett also recorded and pressed a number of other labels including ail of the Sears and Roebuck labels q.

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Smne used Cennett materiaL while others used sides recorded for the label in question. All not listed above will be found under their own names. As weR Cennett pressed a series of "personal" ot "special" records for various individuals and groups; some labels credited Cennett, while others appeared under various label identities.

There are even examples known of a series of music educatiem reands recorded ffu a publisher by Cennett, but pressed by Gedumbia! The Starr Piano Company, the original parent company of Cennett, also operated a Canadian subsidiary. The Canadian branch imported recends from until , when the began an arrangement with the Compo Company to press rectuds in Canada. A more detailed survey was written by this authw and appeared in New Amberola Graphic magazine, of which back issues are available at this writing.

The firm appears to have entered the. These were pnefixed with an "11" to indicate the Uill-and-dale, as vertical cutting was also known, method of recording. The L and L series continued after the prefix was dropped. To further confuse things, some Grey Gull-pres.

They quickly dropped in both quality and price, however, and became very inexpensive land of appropriate quality by S. They did their own recording, possibly in Boston, from through , and continued recording in New York possibly done for them by NYRL into Frmn this point until they drew almost entirely on the output of Emerson, who leased sides extensively under series control numbers during this period. About , they seem to have set up an electrical recording facility, which produced almost all of the material issimd thereafter, with a very few Emerson sides used.

Grey Gull abo had musicians and songwriters create songs solely for the Bsides of their issues to save the few dollars due in composer royalties! In and they used name bands, but records still sold poorly, especially after the depression hit The company seems to have given up around Although it has not been factually verified, the labels and catalog seem to have been acquired by the firm which manufactured the L.

Crown reewds from late onward. Brian Rust comments in his "American Record Label Book" that the remnants of the Grey Gull issues were apparently dumped in England, where they were sohl off cheaply. Woolworth who sold both Crown and Madison and the American Reoml Corporation, many of whose house artists appear on early Crown issues remains to be established, the various labels pressed by Grey GuU are noted below; they also pressed some issues of Oriole ic. This is the first and primary subsidiary lab el pressed by Grey GuU, perhaps as a means to enter the lower-pioe field.

It a qiears just as do Grey GuU-[Hessed Orioles, and uses the sam e orange label background on the very first issues. The first labels designate them. Radiex used Grey GuU numbers, and the label continues to the end of the firm. If so, it is almost certainly a client label Grey Gull ilobe. Some run concurrently with Grey Gull numbers, with a difference; some appear to use an independent numbering system, and some bear no catalog numbers at all It is not yet known if these are in any way relatexi to the Later Jewel label pressed by Plaza.

The name would seem to indicate a client label All use Grey Gull numbers. This quite rare label appears to have been pressed for a short period in This label ran from or to The label is also one of the few Grey Gull labels to enjoy the distinction of its own printed sleeve Van Dyke and Radiex being the others] although it does not give any credits. All use Grey Gull numbering. It used Grey Gull numbers with a 7, later an 8, attached as a prefix; it also used Madison and Sunrise numbers on at least some issues, as well as the late series.

The following label does not relate to any of the above: This is the most unusual of the Grey Gull labels. It first appears aroimd , with a series for pop material and a for folk and standard recordings. It also shared an , Later 81 X series with at least some other Grey Gull labels; these paired non-royalty B.

Interestingly enough, it also used matrices in a series which were recorded for Madison only - although similar to correspon ding Grey Gull sides, they are not identical During this period, regular Grey Gull sidses were used as well This series was dro q ed in - for a short period thereafter, from about to the Ts were not used on Grey Gull the records correspond to Grey GuU dance sides, with a different credit or none at aU.

In late , a scries appears, containing all types of material; after about 50 issues, this loses one zero later issues of earlier material have the zero dropped as well to become a series, which reaches and jump to There are other series known: Other labels pressed by Grey Gull include the following: Other labels may have been pressed and at least two private rr,cordings are known. Like Gennett, the company was based in the midwest and recorded there; as weU, Paramount entered the race market early, and actively marketed records to Blacks from to its demise in This meant that many blues artists and jazz performers appear first or only on the Paramount labeL Collectors can thank Max Vreedc for untangling the Paramount history and that of the related companies and labels.

The story starts around The Wisconsin Chair Company, a furniture manufacturer located in Port Washington, Wisconsin, near Milwaukee, had been building phonograph cabinets for other manufacturers, and decided to enter the phonograph business with a line of machines and records. They established a subsidiary company. The first records were 9-inch verical cut discs which appeared under the Paramount and Puritan names. These were quickly supplanted by inch vertical-cut re. At some point, pcwsibly from the beginning, they contacted with the Bridgeport Die and Machine Company to do the actual pressing of records, early in , this firm decided to enter the record basiness on their own, ami a curioas arrangement seems to have been made.

The arrangement was this: NYKL, on the other han d, pressed very few other labels; all that are known are Claxtonola, which also drew from Gennett, Blue Bird, pressed for a very short time for a Los Angeles phonograph manufacturer. AU except Silvertone either used Paramount numbers or were numbered concurrently.

Their aggressive marketing of race records by mail order, to customers who often had no access to stores selling records, had proven successfuL but as the depression deepened their clientele had no money to spend on luxuries such as records. Their business dwindled, and the firm was finally acquired by the then-struggling Gennett in late , with their last K series blues issues being among the most sought-after records known. The individual labels are detailed on the next page.


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It ran until , but after issued mainly race records. NYRL also pressed a few client labels, detailed below: NYRL pressed this label ; later issues were pressed by Gennett q. Records or sleeves show no information as to their source. It seems to have been the primarv label for the comany. In , Gurl Undstrom, a German resident, acquired a n umb er of record companies based in that country but operating throughout the world, amtrolling labels such as Odeon, Favorite. He had operations in the United States apparently only as an importer, which were run by Otto Heinemann under the latter's own name.

In , Heinemann started noduction of records in a vertical-cut format, using his initials tu suggest the name for the new Okeh label When the U. Records were issued on both the Okeh and Odeon labels, with the latter consisting of imported European sides drawn from the Lindstrom labels and domestically recorded ethnic materiaL except for shortdived ventures as a popular domestic label in and again in see below.

This pcdicy was dropped after the sale of the Columbia firm in In additiem to the line of ethnic records on the Odeon labeL another successful sideline of Okeh was their line, of race records. When Columbia acquired Okeh, they continued the successful race and country lines and recording popular material as weU, even though they were also doing both for their own main label The scarcity of Columbia-pressed Okeh pop reonds indicate they did not sell especially well but race and country record did- At the end of , Okeh was to some extent integrated with the Harmony group of labels, using many of these sides.

When the new management dropped the cheaper labds in , Okeh was retained, but cmly about two dozen items appeared on the bbel mostly reissues, until the last Okeh appeared in the fall of S. This was not the end of the label however; it would be revived not once but twice more land on LP much later as weU! In the fall of , the Vocalion label was suddenly replaced by a new Okeh label which continued the numbering system and the catalog numbers of records in the Vocalion catalog. The first two items are records which used Okeh materiaL and are suspected of being manufactured by okeh well, although this is not verified The following two are those labels which were part of the lindstrom group world-wide, although pressed by Okeh in the 1.

The later issues were pressed by the Compo Ctunpany q. Phonola and most other Compo issues duplicate Okeh catalog numbers although Apex deviates later. Phonola pressed both laterally and vertically cut Okeh sides. The Odeon label first ajqieared in , although not in the In that year the International Talking Ma chine Company, a German firm, introduced a line of records under the Odeon name. They were most notable because they were the first double.

Okeh issued Lindstrom- recorded ethnic material tm the label, excepting a brief domestic venture in , through In , a group of strange recordings appeared under the name, with ONY- catalog numbers. They used some Okeh material and some sides recorded without vocals at Okeh sessions.

Parlophones from this period carry a P. The most common Sears label is Silvertonc, but several others were sold. The Labels sold by Sears are listed below. They were sold in 7 and incJi sizes. These are exceedingly scarce, being sold between cl and All are singleaided, and the labels from all sources are very similar, excepting credit typefaces.

Columbia continued to press them, and Oxfords in the catalog acquired new labels. After a year, the label was revived; Sears turned to Federal for records. The first issues, with a silver-on-blue label Ixire Federal numbers; these were supplanted by the tan label series, numbered in a 20 X scries which paralleled with Federal with Federal numbers in the wax.

In , Federal was evidently acquired by Emerson. While Emerson continued to fuess Silvertones in the series, using their own and Plaza sides. These were numbered in many series, sometimes grouped by manufacturer, sometimes not, with some Cennett pressing? In some cases, the same record came from different. This label was first sold by Sears in see Olympic.


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  7. It bears no reference to Sears most Supertemes do not but the label is similar to later issues known to be Sears issues. This is a challenge to discographers! Those below were pressed by Cennett; numbers run con-secutively, or mostly so, but all issues are pseudonymous. Highe r n umb ers were pressed by Plaza, with blocks of numbers iLsed in a random fashion. They can be dated tmly by their control numbers.

    Issues are again under pseudonyms, and most use the same identities as Mole and Jewel, often paired differently. It continued until , when wartime shortages made custom pressing impossible, and used one consecutive numbering series. The following number nequence appeared on the Labels of Arto rec- ordLs.

    The labels below used the sequence with different initial num- bers or prefixes: All show the number in the runout The following number sequence appeared on standard issues on the same labels, and in the same way: Bell started a new se- quence. The num-bers appear to jump by each time 99 is reached, and some groups seem to be skipped. Numbers from this period may appear under the Label or in the run-out if they appear at aU. Bell records drew from their own recordings source un- known , Plaza and Em- erson. Until , al- most all matrices were suppressed; thereafter, Emerson matrices may show, either in full or the last three digits, in the run-out The last 50 OT so were nressed by Bennett who did not show matrix num- bers cm any of their pressings at the time.

    Erom iennett, appear- ed on Apex only. Duplicates Okeh verti- cal series, appears on Phonola probably prior to Compo pressings. Those which do not do so show the Okeh numbers stamped in the run-out area. The late 40xx issues are from late NOTE: Compo may have pressed and Issued other Okeh series on Phonola or other labels. Early Cennett of Canada issues, and la- ter issues using Rritish materiaL bore numbers identical to their U. This practice stopped at c. Erom Plaza, appeared on: French 12" records on iennett 4x Details unknown, if i; wa.

    Either is a possibility, see next coliunn. Continuation of From Compo, Plaza, unknown U. May continue, date bv numbers. As , on Lucky Strike E28 26 X 0 number in run- All known issues 2? Champion Decca pressings , used on Melotone. From Plaza, on Apex: From Decca, occasion- ally others Melotonek ? This sequence does not duplicate the similar Decca-issued Champion country series, unlike the series. To 91 XX series. As late no PatheT used as above: Sources as 83 XK , iss- ues as Compo also pressed Canadian Decca q. It might be noted as weU that the original Compo recording led- gers are in the collection of the National Library in Ottawa, Canada and it is hoped this data can be included in future supplements to or ed- itions of the Cnide.

    These appear on the records as follows: If shown, handwritten in run-out area. One such issue, from Harmony sides, is known although how is not known! The original stampers were used. Most have matrices faintly handuTitten in the run-out area. Some few do not show the numbers, particularly after , or show them partially ob- scured by the label this is noted on early Deccas as well.

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    Bibliography

    Compo issued six rec- ords from pirated 4 ic- tor sides see the his- torical section. The Victor issue numbers can be seen faintly where thev were j removed from the stampers. They are handwritten in the run-out area. Edison cylinders have been listed in several diff- erent books and maga- zines. Both Edison Diamond Discs and the short- lived "Needle Cut" lateral records used a number of series for various types of material Only the D iam ond Disc popular series is listed below. The following are the first and last issues in each series used Standard: The , and ?

    Matrices appeared both at the bottom of the label and handwritten in the run-out area. Vertical matrix Hum- bers 9exact for January and estimated for June except for and Lateral numbers are exact Vertical-cut Diamond Disc matrices: See section 4 9-inch: Date unlisted series by matrix number. There was also a country series which paralleled the Bell IKX series.

    Custom pressings app- ear on New York and other labels, as well as records credited only to the Consolidated Re- cord Company. The abote series was used on Grey Gull and many min or labels. Earber issues aj peared under the Starr name. The above series was replaced by the one listed below; the two overlapped for a short time, with the above series used for various special items. Gennett also pressed a number of other series. All were short-lived and most date from If Gennett matrices are used, they can dated using those.

    Only one item is known from the ethnic? Most from on show a number left Following arc known examples: As of this time no data is at hand for the vertical-cut matrix numliers. Last number not known. None arc known on regular issues. No other series were used by the company. The series seems to have originated as a standard series before gradually becoming a race-oriented series.

    LCK Series This series has been reported but content and exact date are not currently known. The following couple Grey Gull B-sides Series Known through , all probably issued in early The author has not seen any items from the series. Although the company continued to record small-diameter masters through the end of isolated examples as late as November—December have been confirmed , output of those masters quickly fell to negligible levels. From the start, Johnson made it clear that his sole motive in purchasing Universal was to rein-in a competitor — and what better way to do so than by capping its production?

    The more data that become available, the more closely we can approximate the actual date ranges. Evolution of the American Recording Industry, — , available from Mainspring Press and many major libraries. We heard very quickly from several of the Old Guard concerning our statement, in the previous post, that some Paramount masters numbers might have been assigned out of chronological sequence. Understandably, some old-timers very much dislike having their discographical cages rattled, and rattle we did.

    Our question to them, then, is: Why would NYRL not have occasionally scrambled its master numbers? Assigning master numbers weeks or even months after the sessions at which the recordings were made was not an uncommon occurrence in the recording industry during this period, even among far better-organized companies than the notoriously slipshod NYRL. Consider the following examples, plucked at random from the Victor files.

    All of these recordings sat around for one to six months after the sessions at which they were made, before finally being assigned master numbers — which by that time had advanced well beyond the numbers that would have been assigned at the time of recording. If one were to go simply by the normal chronological sequence of Victor master numbers, the approximate recording dates would appear to be those shown in Column 2.

    And they would be very wrong, as seen from the actual recording dates shown in Column Many similar examples can be found in the Victor, Columbia, and Brunswick-Vocalion files throughout the s — but you get the general idea. A final note for now in what will be a long, ongoing investigation: Share Twitter Google Email. In the interest of full disclosure, the blue-card figures could be off a bit, as John notes: